- How to keep your home cool without Air-Conditioning
Close your windows early when the temperature is still low.
Close your external shutters or Insulate your bedroom windows or any other room where you do not use in daytime from outside with cardboards for insulation from sun and heat. You can also use aluminium for reflexion as well.
Try not to cook with the oven, especially if you have no kitchen door separation to your living room.
Use lights only where you need them.
When its cooler outside, at nights or early mornings, pull some air in with window mounted fans. Small fans can run on batteries and UPS (good for places like Lebanon, where power cuts all day)
window mounted fan
Install sprinkler system on your roof to have evaporative cooling when the humidity is less than 50%.
Outside white paint to reflect the sun is a great plus, you see this in houses in Greece and Spain.
if you have an exposed roof, try to plant vine tree, in summer it shades the house and in winter the leafs drop, allowing the sun. you found many houses as such in villages of the mediterranean
vine tree covering house
Most heat is transferred through the windows, so installing double glazing with tinted glass is recommended. Some new tech windows turn shady upon sunlight or heat.
In dry climates use evaporative coolers, you can make one yourself or buy one for about a 100$. They have no compressors but a fan and water recirculation system with a membrane . The only thing for you to do is to fill it with normal or even cold water with ice. not recommended for climates that are 50% in humidity and up.
Ventilate your attic, naturally as you see in the first picture with white louvers or even exhaust the air with the help of a fan, so no buildup of high temperatures occur.
If on days that are too hot where temperatures are not dropping below 25C. 77F. Then it would be best to turn your Air conditioner for 1 or 2 hours to keep cool at nights and afternoons where the temperatures tend to be highest.
So, good insulation, as much shading on the outside and as minimum electric appliance indoors.
These are the most efficient ways to cool a house
Link to my HVAC books